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History Of The Punjab - Volume 3 - Book By Fauja Singh

Publisher: Punjabi-University-Patiala
Authors: Fauja Singh
Page: 317
Format: Hardbound
Language: English
Product Code: SHE202
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Foreword To 'History Of The Punjab - Volume 3' By Fauja Singh

All through the centuries the Punjab has played a very significant role in the history of our country. Recent researches have shown that it was probably the first place in India to  have any human habitation. According to  the present state of our knowledge, the first civilization to rise in India was the Indus Valley Civilization in which the Punjab constituted a major territorial unit. The Indo-Aryans, the most important of our ancestors, on their advent into India, settled first of all in the plains of the Punjab and it was here on the banks of the rivers that the first Vedic hymns were composed by the maharishis of those ancient days. After some centuries came Persians and Greeks. When Alexander the great made his invasion, his experienced dogged resistance at every step in the Punjab and had to return from the banks of the Beas. This was quickly followed by the rise of Chandragupta Maurya who, with the help of the Punjabis, conquerred the whole of  northern India and established the first great empire of India with its north-western frontier extending far beyond the confines of Kabul. The post-Mauryan period was marked by a long series of inroads by certain central Asian tribes like Sakas, Scythians, Kushans and, after a few centuries, Hunas. Naturally, they caused a good deal of devastation in the Land. But they had not come to go back, and after a time when they settled down, they did make a contribution to the variegated Punjabi life. At the end of the ancient period of our history, the Punjab witnessed the establishment of the powerful and extensive Hindushahi Kingdom which put up a heroic resistance to the tide of the Turkish invasions starting from the tenth century.

With the advent of the Turks, the Punjab passed under the influence of Islamic civilization. The mutual comflict or contact of the two civilizations, Hindu and Muslim, led to several significant changes in the life of our people, of which by far the most important was the birth of the Sikh movement in the later half of the 15th century. On the foundations laid down by Guru Nanak and his eight successors, Guru Gobind Singh, the last of the line, raised the revolutionary organisation of the Khalsa. This Khalsa, as is well known now, valiantly faced all the terrible ordeals into which the hostility of the Mughal government of the Punjab and the Afghan invaders from the north-west had thrown them, and ultimately came out successful and set up their independent rule which is commonly termed the rule of the twelve Sikh Misals. Some years later, Maharaja Ranjit Singh rose as the lion of the Punjab and established a powerful sovereign state comprising, besides the Punjab plains the tracts of Kohistan, Kashmir, Ladakh and Peshawar.

In 1849 the Punjab was annexed to the vast British empire of India. Henceforward till the end of the British sway in 1947, the people of this region earned the reputation of being the sword-arm of India on the one hand and on the other were second to none in making supreme sacrifices in the cause of the country's freedom from foreign domination.

The above references to the historic role of the Punjab, though very scanty, Should be enough to underpin the urgent necessity and importance of the subject. In view of this the Punjabi University has decided that the entire history of the Punjab should be studied in a detailed and systematic manner and that on the basis of the results thereof a multi-volume comprehensive history should be produced which, by discovering new data and posing fresh problems, may pave the way to still higher studies in the same field. The present book is the first concrete step on the road to that goal. Seven more books of this type are under preparation. It is hoped that the entire project of eight volumes of Punjab history will be completed in the next five years or so.

The present work relates to the 500 year-long period of the sultanate of Delhi. It occupies a most important phase in the long and chequered history of the Punjab, because it  was during this that a new civilization entered the country and made a profound impact upon the mode of living and thinking of our people. The changes that appeared as the result thereof in the diverse spheres of life-political, administrative, social, religious, economic and artistic-have all been examined, in greater or lesser degree, in this book. To the best of my knowledge, there is at present no other book on the subject having the same elaborate detail and anaylsis.

It is but to be admitted that there will be several short comings in this work, but such shortcomings or not unnatural in a pioneer work of this kind. Despite all the shortcomings that may be there, I am firmly of the opinion that the work will be of immense value to students, general readers and research scholars. For this successful attempt Dr Ganda Singh, who prepared and launched the original plan and Dr Fauja Singh, who has brought it to the successful conclusion, deserve my heartiest congratulations. I do hope that the momentous task undertaken by the Department of Punjab Historical Studies will be completed in the next few years.


Table Of Contents For 'History of The Punjab - Vol 3' Book By Fauja Singh


Foreword   Sardar Kirpal Singh Narang, Vice Chancellor, Punjab University, Patiala (v)
Editor's Note 
Fauja Singh (vii)
Introduction Fauja Singh (ix-xxv)

Islam : The Founder, Beliefs and Institutions   

                                      Sri Ram Sharma, M.A.

                    Director, Institute of Public Administration, Una                               

  Birth of prophet Muhammad 1
  Message of the Quran 2
  Condition after the death of Prophet-Khilafat 3
  The injuctions of the Quran and the Hadis 6
  Duties of Khalifa 7
  Administration of Justice 9
  Position of Women 11
  Art of War 11

Punjab on the Eye of Muslim Invasions                                                            gurbux Singh, M.A.

          Assistant Director, Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University , Patiala

  Kashmir 14
  Kanauj 17
  Sind and Multan 19
  Jai Singh's Visit to the Punjab and Kashmir 21
  The Origin of the Hindushahis 23
  Jullundur 25
  Takki 26
  Early Hindushahis 26

Punjab under Ghaznavid Occupation

                                                  Gurbux Singh

  Ghaznavid Conquests of the Punjab 33
  Tahirids, Saffarids and Samanids 34
  Occupation of Ghazni by Alptigin 35
  Hindushahi rulers of the Punjab 36
  Clash between Hindushahis and Ghaznavids 37
  Subuktigin and his Successors 39
  Sultan Mahmud and his Campaigns 40
  Ghaznavid Rule in the Punjab 49
  Mahmud's Successors 53

Ghori Invasions

Sri Ram Sharma

  Shihab-ud-Din's Succession,  63
  Campaigns against Hindu Rulers, 64
  Punjab after Shihab-ud-Din's death 73

Precipitate Fall of Hindu India

              P.Saran, M.A, Ph. D., F.R. Hist.S. (London)

Honorary Associate Professor of Indian History and Culture, Osmania University, Hyderabad

  Previous Explanations 78
  Deeper Malady 78
  Socio-Cultural Significance of Harsha's Age 79
  Neo-Brahanism 80
  Temples Galore 82
  Rampant Ritualism 82
  Composition of the Army 84
  Strategy and Tactics of War 84
  Translation 85
  Forts 85
  Art of Sieges 86
  Estimate of Rajput Warfare 86
  Effects on the Country 89

Mamluk Administration

Bakhshish Singh Nijjar, M.A, Ph.d

Offg Director, Punjab State Archives, Patiala

  Sultan Qutab-ud-Din Aibak 91
  Sultan IItutmish 92
  Sultana Razia 95
  The Battle of Kaithal 96
  Sultan Nasir-ud-din Mahmud 97
  Sultan Ghias-ud-Din Balban 97
  The Battale of the Ravi 99
  Conclusion 100

Khalji Administration

K. A. Nizami, M.A., Ph.D.

Professor of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

  Role of the Punjab in the Khalji Revolution 104
  Siraj-ud-Din and Mandahir at the Court of Jalal-ud-Din 104
  Mughal Invasion of the Punjab during the Reign of Jalal-ud-Din Khalji 105
  Multan under Arkali Khan 106
  Punjab during the Reign of Ala-ud-Din Khalji 106
  Mongol Invasions of the Punjab during Ala-ud-Din Khalji Reign 108
  Economic Regulations of Ala-ud-Din Khalji and the Punjab 109

Tughlaq Administration

K.A. Nizami

  Tughlaqs and the Punjab 114
  Movement against Khusrau Khan organised in the Punjab 114
  Ghazi Malik prepares against Khusrau Khan 114
  Multan and Sind under Aiba 115
  Administration of the Punjab under the Tughlaq 116
  Rebellion of Bahram Aiba : Multan under Muhammad-bin-Tughlaqs 116
  Imad-ud-Mulk as the Governor of Sind and Multan 117
  Qutab-ul-Mulk's Administration of Multan, 117
  Rebellions in the Punjab 118
  Rebellions and Expression of Agraian Unrest 118
  Firoz Shah's Efforts to improve the Agricultural Condition of the Punjab 118
  New Cities founded in Punjab by Firoz Shah 119
  Ain-ul-Mulk's Administration of the Punjab 120
  Firoz Shah's Administrative Measures in the Punjab 121
  Tughlaq's Attacks on Nagarkot 121
  Role of the Punjab in the Succession Struggles after Firoz Shah 121

Timur's Invasion

Sri Ram Sharma

  The Game of King-Making after Firoz Shah Tughalq 125
  Timur's Desire to Invade India 126
  Timur Marches Towards Jhelum 127
  Bhatnir and Pakpattan 129
  Timur Against Iqbal Khan of Delhi 129
  Sack of Delhi 130
  March Towards Shivalik Range, Kangra and Jammu 134
  Timur's Return March Through the Punjab 135

Punjab under Sayyids and Lodhis

Sri Ram Sharma

  Iqbal Khan at Delhi 139
  Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud 141
  Daulat Khan Lodhi 142
  The Sayyids 143
  Jasrat Khokhar 145
  Bhatinda and Shorkot 147
  Shaikh Ali in the Punjab 149
  Murder of Mubarak Shah 149
  Muhammad Shah 150
  Alam Shah 150
  Punjab under the Lodhis 150
  Bahlol's Assumption of Royal Power 152

People's Struggle against  Political Tyranny

Buddha Parkash, M.A.,  L. L. B., Ph. D. D. Litt

Professor and Head, Department of History, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

  Turikh Occupation of India 161
  Use of Oppression Through Force and Levy of Taxes 162
  People's Reaction 163
  Uprisings in the Punjab 164
  Timur's Invasion 171
  Revolts under Sayyid and Lodhi Sultans 173

Political Theory as Practised in the Punjab

Bhagat Singh, M.A.

Lecturer in History, Mohindra College, Patiala

  The Concept of State in Islam 179
  Khalifa 182
  King in the Islamic World 184
  The Sphere of Sultan's Powers 184
  Absolute Rights of Sultans 188
  Restrictions on Sultan's Powers 190
  Principles of Election 192
  The Khutba 193
  Nobles' Influence in the State 194
  Iranian Influence on the Delhi Rulers 195
  Sultan and the Muslim Church 195
  Policy of the Sultans and the Principles of Shar as Applied to the Hindus 198

Local Government Institutions

Bhagat Singh

  Shiq 206
  Pragana 207
  Deh (village) 209
  Town Administrations 210
  Local Landlords 210
  Iqta and Iqtadar 210
  Land Revenue System 213
  Structure of Local Taxes 218
  Zakat 218
  Jizya 219
  Khums 220
  Other Taxes 220
  Local Judicial Department 220
  Local Administration of Law and Order 222
  Roads and Postal System 223
  Local Education 225

Religious Beliefs and Practices

L.M. Joshi, M.A,. Ph. D

Reader, Department of religious Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala

  The Last Days of Buddhism 231
  Traces of Persian Religion 233
  Hindu Beliefs and Practices 234
  Gleanings from Alberuni 235
  Gleanings from the 'Rajatrangini' 238
  Saivism 238
  Vaisnavism 239
  Position of the Priests 239
  Other Aspects of Brahmanism 240
  Mystical and Devotional Aspects 241
  The Tradition of the Siddhas 242
  The Rise and Growth of Islam 244
  The Sufis and Sufism 245
  Hinduism and Islam 247
  The Rise of Sikhism 249

Social Conditions

Sant Singh Sekhon

ex-Principal, Khalsa College, Patial

  The Advent of Islamic Religion 254
  Spread of Islam in the Punjab-End of the Hindu Ruling Dynasties 255
  Causes of the spread of Islam in the Punjab 258
  Hidnu Society 260
  Castes and Classes 260
  The Matrimonial System 261
  Conditions of Women 262
  The Condition of Widows 263
  Johar  265
  Prostitution 266
  Social Conventions 267
  The Muslim People 272
  Slaves 275
  The Ulema 275

Economic Conditions

Sri Ram Sharma

  Town and Cities 278
  Mineral Wealth 278
  Major Industries 279
  Other Industries, Occupations and Professions 279
  Trade and Commerce 283
  Controlled economy under Alau-ud-Din 283
  Prices under his Successors 286
  The Transport of Trade Articles 286
  Brokers, Bankers and Money Changers 286
  The Import Trade 287
  Peddlers 288
  Seasonal Marts 288
  Agriculture 288
  Other Professions-The Priestly Class 292
  Entertainers 293
  Prostitution 293
  Service Professions 294
  Travelling Services 295
  Domestic Servants 295
  The Court and Public Services 296
  Wages 296
  Hospitals 297
  Conclusions 297

Language and Literature during the Sultanate Period Part I

Jit Singh Sital, M.A., Ph.D.

Reader in Punjabi University, Patiala

  Reign of Mamluk Sultans 303
  Khalji Sultans 306
  Tughlaq Sultans 306
  Sayad Dynasty 308
  The Lodhi Period 309

Language and Literature during the Sultanate Period Part II

Attar Singh Sital, M.A., Ph. D.

Head of the Department of English-Punjabi Dictionary, Punjab University, Chandigarh

  History of Development of the Punjabi Language and Literature 312
  Adi-Granth 314
  Influence of Guru Nanak 315


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